Thymoma & Other Thymic Tumors

Thymoma & Other Thymic Tumors

Mediastinum - the space in the chest between the lungs, which contains the heart, large vessels, trachea, oesophagus, thymus (thymus), lymph nodes. Mediastinal neoplasms (tumours and cysts of the mediastinum) are a group of benign and malignant neoplasms of heterogeneous origin, united by a common localization and similar symptoms. The most common formations of the mediastinum are thymomas, cysts, tumours of neurogenic origin and lymphomas. Sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and other diseases can cause enlargement of the mediastinal lymph nodes.

A thymoma is a group of neoplasms that arise in the lymphatic tissue of the thymus gland. These are the most common tumours of the mediastinum, which with the same frequency have a benign course of the disease and a malignant one. In the latter case, there is an intensive penetration beyond the localization area, spread by metastases to the surrounding organs. The exact cause contributing to the development of tumours in the mediastinum is not known, but it is assumed that the following factors may affect: 

  • Poor immunity.
  • Mechanical damage.
  • Postponed surgical interventions.
  • Exposure to radiation.
  • Influence of carcinogenic substances.

Symptoms 

The following symptoms may indicate the appearance of tumours in the mediastinum: 

  • Pain in the chest area, radiating to the neck and back.
  • Hoarseness of voice.
  • Cough.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Difficulty swallowing.
  • Breathing disorder.
  • Noise in the head.
  • General weakness.
  • Expansion of the neck veins.
  • Puffiness.
  • Descent of the century.
  • Fever.
  • Weight loss.
  • Abnormal heart rhythm.

The specifics of symptoms depends on the localization, the form of the course of the tumour process, the size of the formation. At the first stage, when complications have not yet begun, the prognosis is quite favourable, neoplasms are found mainly by chance, during an external examination.

Treatment

Our Tel Aviv Medical Clinic is renowned for its state-of-the-art equipment and highly trained medical staff with years of experience. The most effective treatment method is selected based on individual indicators. The main method of treatment of neoplasms of the mediastinum is surgical. The type of surgery depends on the location and size of the tumour. Whenever possible, we perform operations through small incisions (video-assisted or thoracoscopic operations). Such interventions are much less traumatic and significantly reduce the time of recovery and hospital stay.